Can vitamin B3 help prevent melanoma?
Can vitamin B3 help prevent melanoma? In this article we will discuss about this.
Can vitamin B3 help prevent melanoma
In a new review, researchers claim that nicotinamide may have the potential to prevent melanoma — the deadliest form of skin cancer — and they say it should be tested in clinical trials.
Nicotinamide, also known as niacinamide, is a form of vitamin B3 (niacin). This substance can be found in foods including milk, eggs, fish, green vegetables, and lean meats. This substance is also available as a dietary supplement.
Nicotinamide is known to be an effective cholesterol-lowering drug, and it is also used for the prevention and treatment of pellagra, which is a disease caused by niacin deficiency.
The latest study conducted by Prof. Gary Halliday, from the University of Sydney in Australia, and colleagues – suggest that nicotinamide may also help prevent melanoma, especially in people who are at high risk of developing the disease.
Prof. Halliday and his team recently reported the findings in the journal Photodermatology, Photoimmunology & Photomedicine.
Melanoma is a form of skin cancer that begins and develops in melanocytes. These are skin cells that produce a pigment called melanin, which serves to protect the deeper layers of the skin from the harmful effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation.
According to a Kompas release, the trend of melanoma in Indonesia is quite low because the average population is dark-skinned. However, there are various cases of cancer that make us have to be vigilant.
Exposure to UV radiation is considered a major risk factor for melanoma; it damages the DNA in skin cells. This DNA damage can cause skin cells to grow out of control, which can lead to cancer.
Nicotinamide enhances skin DNA repair.
To prevent skin problems from sun radiation, many recommend sunscreen. On the one hand, Prof. Halliday and team say that sunscreen is not very effective for melanoma. " unconvincing."
“These conflicting results may stem from inadequate application […] and reapplication of sunscreen and increased motivation to sunbathe, as long as sunscreen is applied,” write the authors.
However, researchers say that there are a number of other substances that hold promise for melanoma prevention – one of which is nicotinamide.
In their study, Prof Halliday and colleagues reviewed previous studies that had investigated the effects of nicotinamide on melanoma cancer cells. The results suggest that vitamins may be effective candidates for prevention, especially for patients at high risk of melanoma.
The team cites numerous studies that reveal how nicotinamide can protect the skin against the harmful effects of UV radiation. For example, studies on human cell lines have shown that nicotinamide can increase DNA repair in response to UV light exposure.
Research also shows that the vitamin can reduce immunosuppression and inflammation, both of which are known to contribute to the development of cancer.
“Nicotinamide restores cellular energy stores, which are reduced by UV exposure. This extra energy allows cells to repair DNA damage more efficiently, and also helps reduce the immune suppressive effects of sunlight on the skin,” study co-author Prof. Diona Damian, also from the University of Sydney, told Medical News Today.
With this in mind, the team hypothesized that nicotinamide might reduce the risk of melanoma.
Clinical Trial Assurance
In his review, Prof. Halliday and colleagues discuss the results of Oral Nicotinamide To Reduce Actinic Cancer .in a phase III clinical trial of nicotinamide for the prevention of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs)
The trial involved 386 participants, each of whom had been diagnosed with at least two non-melanoma skin cancers in the past 5 years.
Participants were divided into two groups: the first group took 500 milligrams of nicotinamide daily for one year, while the other group received a placebo.
Over a 12-month period, the development of new non-melanoma skin cancer was found to be 23 percent lower for the subjects taking nicotinamide, compared with those taking the placebo.
While this trial was unable to investigate the effect of nicotinamide on melanoma – due to multiple cases of the disease among participants – Prof. Halliday and team say the results suggest that clinical trials are needed to assess how the vitamin might fight this – a deadly skin cancer.
"To look at the incidence of melanoma, the cohort would need someone at high risk for melanoma, for example those who have had previous melanoma symptoms, or people who have a genetic susceptibility to developing melanoma in the body," the authors note.
“This study was conducted over a period of one year, and required a longer study period and a much larger study group. It is necessary to fully assess the incidence of melanoma, which is much less common. than NMSC."
Meanwhile, the researchers stress that nicotinamide should not be seen as an alternative to current sun-protective behavior.
"Nicotinamide can only be used as an additional measure, in conditions of less intense sun, sunscreen, and sun protective clothing, and only in people who are at high risk of skin cancer," said Prof. Damian to MNT.
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