Vitamin B3: Definition, Benefits, Functions, Food Sources
Vitamin B3 plays a role in converting the food we eat into energy. This helps the body to absorb protein and fat, keeping skin, hair, and nervous system healthy.
Other benefits of B3 are lowering cholesterol, increasing antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
Other names for vitamin B-3 are nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, and vitamin PP because they can prevent pellagra.
The body excretes unneeded niacin through the urine. The body does not store niacin, therefore we must obtain vitamin B3 intake through the food we eat every day.
A healthy diet can meet all the needs of a person's vitamin B-3. Vitamin B-3 deficiency is rare in Indonesia.
Deficiency or symptoms of Vitamin B3 deficiency
According to the ODS, a person who has a vitamin B-3 deficiency may experience:
- Red spots or pigment on the skin exposed to sunlight
- A rough appearance on the surface of the skin
- The tongue becomes bright red
- Fatigue or apathy
- Vomiting, constipation, and diarrhea
- Circulatory problems
- Memory loss
- In severe cases, hallucinations may occur.
B3 deficiency can also cause another serious illness, Pellagra. Which can be fatal to health.
Factors that can cause low levels of B-3 include:
- Exposure to tryptophan or conditions that reduce the body's ability to convert tryptophan to niacin, such as Hartnup's disease or carcinoid syndrome
- Nutritional deficiencies, for example, due to alcohol use, anorexia, and inflammatory bowel disease
- Vitamin intake B2, B6 and low iron can reduce levels of tryptophan, which is a substance that is converted into niacin.
Risks from excess Vitamin B3
The amount of vitamin B3 levels in food is safe for consumption because it does not cause side effects. However, taking high doses of vitamin B3 as a supplement can cause side effects.
This can cause problems with:
- reddened or itchy skin
Excess vitamin B-3 can also:
- Reduce glucose tolerance and insulin resistance
- Aggravating the disease in people with gout
- Causes eye
- problems Causes digestive problems
- Increases the risk of liver damage
- Lower Blood pressure, leading to loss of balance and risk of falls
Recommended Vitamin B3 intake The
National Institutes of Health (NIH) Dietary Supplement Label Database recommends 16 milligrams (mg) of vitamin B-3 a day for anyone 4 years of age or older eating a 2,000-calorie diet .
On this basis, those who eat a balanced diet with levels of niacin in it.
B vitamin supplements are also available and can be purchased online, but it is better to take under the direction of a herbal or vitamin doctor.
Food Sources of Vitamin B3
The following list of foods are sources of vitamin B3:
- Beef liver: A 3-ounce serving contains 14.9 mg or 75 percent of the DV
- Roasted chicken breast: A 3-ounce serving contains 10.3 mg or 52 percent of the DV
- Turkey breast: A 3-ounce serving has 10.0 mg or 50 percent of the DV
- Sockeye salmon: A 3-ounce piece contains 8.6 mg or 43 percent of the DV
- Brown rice: One cup provides 5.2 micrograms or 26 percent of the DV
- A good breakfast cereal fortified: One serving contains 5.0 mg or 25 percent of the DV
- Dry roasted beans: One ounce of these nuts contains 4.2 mg or 21 percent of the DV
Good sources of niacin can be found in foods that are high in tryovan. The body needs tryptophan to produce protein, but if there is an excess, the body can also convert it into niacin.